Details about structural and non structural defects in buildings
Concrete has diversified nature. It casts in place by including or excluding reinforcement. It is also precast or pre-stressed to attain necessary strength. For this purpose, there should be adequate knowledge on the behavior and constituents based on which the concrete is produced.
There should not be any type of laxity in any of its phase like placement, design & maintenance as these can create deterioration and resist concrete to accomplish its proposed functions. Given below, some vital factors which can weaken the quality of concrete:
1. Accidental loading
2. Chemical reaction like sulfate attack, alkali carbonate reactions, alkali silica reactions etc
3. Erosion of steel reinforcement
4. Inferior construction detailing
6. Freezing and Thawing
9. Fire and weathering
Flaws in Building Design: Due to deficient structural design, the concrete is uncovered to flexural and shearing stresses and as a result spalling and cracking of concrete are developed. Any sudden modification in cross section of any member can result in raising the stress concentration in that member that leads to cracking of concrete.
Deflection is considered as one of the significant part in structural design. If there exist any issue in its consideration throughout design, that can produce cracking of concrete. Insufficient arrangement of drainage and expansion joints throughout the design also leads to deterioration and spalling of concrete.
Flaws During Construction: Flaws throughout building construction vary from inappropriate mixing, placing and curing of concrete. Detachment of shoring & formwork can also produces cracks in concrete.
When extra water is provided in concrete to enhance the workability of concrete, the water cement ratio is raised significantly and it can reduce the strength of concrete. Inappropriate alignment of formwork produces corrosion in concrete.
Structural Defects in Building Construction - The following structural defects are found in buildings:
1. Cracks in foundation (substructure)
2. Cracks in floors and slabs (superstructure)
3. Cracks in Walls (superstructure)
These above defects are occurred due to the following factors:
1. Inappropriate soil analysis
2. Inappropriate site selection
3. Application of defective materials
4. Inferior work
These structural issues can be resolved with perfect design and planning.
Non Structural Defects in Building Construction - The following non structural defects are common in buildings:
1. Defects in brick work
2. Dampness in old structures
3. Defects in plaster works
So, it is found that minimum design and construction defects lead to minor cracking or spalling which can weaken the concrete and result in collapsing of the structure. To get rid of these issues, proper care and attention should be taken in designing, detailing and construction of concrete structure.