Different types of cement and their uses in construction industry
Cement is a blend of various ingredients constituents and it functions as the prime material in concrete.
Cement is mainly categorized as :-
1. Hydraulic cement
2. Non-hydraulic cement.
Hydraulic cement: The purpose of hydraulic cement is to resist water and leaks in concrete and masonry structures. It has similarity with mortar and it sets rapidly and gets solidified as soon as it is blended with water. Hydraulic cements set and turns into adhesive because of a chemical reaction among the dry ingredients and water. This type of cement is also solidified in underwater. Portland cement is the best instance for hydraulic cement.
Non Hydraulic cement: The cement that never gets solidified in underwater is known as non-hydraulic cement. This type of cement is solidified if it reacts with the atmospheric carbon dioxide (carbonation). This cement has good resistance capacity against chemicals attack after setting. Non-hydraulic cement is formed with non-hydraulic lime, gypsum plasters and oxychloride, which contain liquid properties.
Various types of cement :-
1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC): This type of cement is mostly found. It is capable of resisting cracking and dry shrinkage efficiently but contains less resistance capacity against chemical attack. OPC is not effective for the construction work that is unprotected to sulphates in the soil.
Ordinary Portland cement comes with the following types :-
33 grade, 43 grade & 53 grade.
The grade stands for the strength of cement at 28days. 33grade = 33N/mm2
2. Rapid Hardening cement: Rapid hardening cement has similarity with ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The initial strength is obtained with the addition of extreme C3S in the mix and reduction in the C2S content in the cement. This type of cement is suitable where superior quality strength is required. As for example, pavements, busiest roadways etc.
The strength of Rapid Hardening cement at age of 3 days is nearly equivalent to the 7 days strength of Ordinary Portland cement. There should be similar water-cement ratio as OPC. This type of cement is not recommended for enormous concrete constructions.
3. Low heat portland cement: This type of cement is formed by reducing the C3S content and raising the C2S content. It contains less compressive strength as compared to ordinary Portland cement. It contains less lime content as compared to OPC. This type of cement is frequently applied in the development of retaining walls and it is not perfect for thin concrete structures.
4. Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement: It is built up by retaining the percentage of C3A under 5%. This type of cement is effective where the structure is subject to extreme sulphate attacks(alkaline conditions) like erection in the foundation of soil, marine conditions, sewage treatment tanks.
5. High alumina Cement: this type of cement contains adequate alumina contents approx 35% which allow in acquiring ultimate high strength in a short period. This type of cement is utilized where a structure is prone to the action of sea water, chemical plants and furnaces.
6. Blast furnace slag cement: This type of cement is inexpensive as compared to Ordinary Portland cement. OPC clinker and blast furnace slag are grinded to form this type of cement. Blast furnace slag cement produces low heat of hydration and contains less initial strength.
7. Coloured Cement: This type of cement is also termed as Colcrete. It is built up by adding coloring pigment to the OPC. It’s purpose is to connect tiles.
8. Pozzolana cement: The pozzolana refers to a material that is originated with the volcanic eruptions. This siliceous material contains approx 80% clay in it. Pozzolana cement is formed with the amalgamation of 30% of pozzolana to Ordinary Portland cement clinkers. This type of cement is suitable for the development of dams and weirs.
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