Deep Foundation in Construction
Engineering comes up with solutions to different construction problems. A deep foundation is such a solving method that proves to be very useful in weak compressible soils. In this construction process, piles and drilled shafts and other components are rooted deep into the ground for transferring loads from soft soils to the stronger part. This engineering is for balancing a structure to carry loads.
Types of deep foundation: The deep foundation has many classifications as per the use and application of the process. Below is a list that consists of most common names.
• Pile foundation
• Caisson or well foundation
Pile foundation: Such foundation is applicable in constructing a wall supported on piles. This process allows you to construct a structure anywhere, regardless of the soil compression. Pile foundation is also divided into a few categories according to the application. The names are given below.
• Sheet piles – sheet piles have some specific applications, especially in protecting erosion of river banks, retaining the sides of foundation trenches supporting walls of different marine works.
• Bearing piles – bearing piles work as pillars to carry and transfer loads from soft soil to the hard rock to maintain a balance of a super structure.
• Friction piles – Friction piles are more known as floating piles and such piles are applicable where the soil is too soft to hold the bottom stratum of piles.
Cofferdams: Cofferdams are constructed in a water-bearing surface (such as in a lake or in a river) and it is considered as a temporary structure to dry out a place for construction works. The foundation helps in water exclusion from a construction site.
Types of cofferdams: Different types of cofferdams are constructed as per their use. The names are given below.
• Earthen cofferdam
• Rock fill cofferdam
• Single-walked cofferdam
• Double walked cofferdam
• Crib V
• Cellular cofferdam
Caissons: The structure is made up of wood, steel or reinforced concrete and the construction needs excavation in a river or in a lake for resting the foundation of bridges and piers. This type of deep foundation is divided into mainly three categories.
• Open Caissons – this is generally used for the deepest foundation.
• Box Caissons – this is type of deep foundation is closed from the bottom and cast on the land only when it is required.
• Pneumatic Caissons – this structure is enclosed from the top and opened from the bottom. For excavating water from the construction site, this type of deep foundation has been used.
Deep foundation in construction has applications in a wide range. This is considered to be an evitable part where water excavation or a load bearing structure is required.