Advancement in Concrete Technology
The last three decades have witnessed a rapid growth in concrete technologies. Experiments are well-accepted to enhance the strength and durability of concrete mostly in the form of a steel reinforcement process. The reinforced cement concrete and pre-stressed cement concrete have known as conventional materials for construction. These days, stresses are given to the development of different types of concrete. Some of the popular developments start gaining a wide acceptance from their consumer pools. These include fiber reinforced concrete, polymer concrete, ready-mixed concrete, high-strength concrete, and self-compacting concrete and more. Different types of concrete are explained here.
Fiber Reinforced Concrete:
Fiber reinforced technique is held as a popular method to enhance hardness and strength of concrete. The durability of the material, though, solely depends on which fiber is being used for reinforcement process. Generally mineral, organic and metallic fibers have been incorporated for preparing this type of cement. Among all, asbestos cement, having asbestos as a primary material, has made the desired place in the market. Since the component has a higher water absorption level, the cement made of this material requires greater water requirement. This leads to the deduction of strength in the final production.
Different types of organic fiber have also been used for making concrete, nowadays. Such fibers (coir, jute, rayon and polyester) are generally attacked by alkaline condition, and concrete made of this material starts losing hardness eventually. Organic fibers like nylon or polypropylene and polyethylene are alkaline-resistant, but they have a low modulus of elasticity causing the reduction of strength in concrete.
Among all, steel fiber reinforcement concrete has been popularly used. It has all necessary factors that are needed to produce high-quality concrete, including comprehensive strength, tensile strength, fatique strength, elasticity and thermal conductivity. Steel fiber reinforcement concrete has its application in the areas like pavements, precast concrete unit, tunnel lining and machine foundation.
Polymer concrete has been divided into three main categories as per monomer incorporation. These are:
• Polymer impregnated concrete
• Polymer cement concrete
• Polymer concrete
It has proven that such concrete has a higher level of all essential factors related to concrete such as compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus and elasticity. Being nil in creep and permeability, it is one of the desired options for construction.
Ferrocement: This reinforcement technique needs cement mortar and microconcrete. Reinforcement is done in the form of a wire mess or a steel mesh in small diameter. There is a proportion limit for every material in the mix that provides the structure with the needed hardness. In this process, mesh definitely plays a major role for adding the required durability to the structure. This reinforcement procedure is needed in constructing cargo boats, water storage tanks, biogas holder and so on.
With time, there are many reinforcement processes have been engineered to add additional elements to concrete resulting in greater durability and strength. Besides the above-mentioned development methods, there are many that enrich the construction process such as self-compacting concrete, self-curing concrete, and smart concrete and so on.