Masonry wall construction types
In any building or structure, masonry walls are considered as the most consistent section of any building or structure. These add potency and lastingness to the structure as well as manage indoor and outdoor temperature.
Masonry is applied in construction through mortar that acts like a binding material having separate units of bricks, stones, marbles, granites, concrete blocks, tiles etc. Mortar is produced by blending binding materials like cement, lime, soil or any other with sand.
Masonry is categorized as following :-
1. Load Bearing Masonry Walls: To build Load bearing masonry walls, bricks, stones or concrete blocks are used. The loads from the roof to the foundation are transmitted directly through these walls. These walls may vary from exterior to interior walls. The buildings constructed with load bearing walls are inexpensive as compared to framed structures.
The density of load bearing walls is formed on the basis of the tolerable quantity of load from roof. The load bearing walls may vary from reinforced or unreinforced masonry walls.
2. Reinforced Masonry Walls: Reinforced masonry walls may refer to load bearing walls or non-load bearing walls. If reinforcement is used in walls, it can resisit tension forces and heavy compressive loads. The cracking and failure may occur for un-reinforced masonry walls under overweight compressive loads and throughout earthquakes as these can't completely resist lateral forces throughout heavy rain and wind. Cracks may also happen in un-reinforced masonry walls because of earth pressure or derivative settlement of foundations.
Here comes the usefulness of reinforced masonry walls. Reinforcement in walls at required spaces both horizontally and vertically is applied. The size of reinforcement, its quantity and spacing are obtained on the basis of the loads over the walls and structural conditions.
3. Hollow Masonry Walls: Hollow or Cavity masonry walls are very useful for resisting moisture that enters into the interior of the building with formation of hollow space amid outside and inside face of the wall. As the hollow space resists heat to transmit through the wall, hollow masonry walls easily manage temperate within the building from outside wall.
If the wall is uncovered to moisture for a prolonged time and passed through the outer face, the water enters the cavity or the hollow space and pours down. Then these are discharged via the weep holes to the exterior of the building. These hollow spaces are covered with water repellent coating or damp-proofing to minimize the arrival of moisture further.
4. Composite Masonry Walls: These walls are built up with two or more units which range from stones or bricks and hollow bricks. In composite masonry walls, two withes (A wythe belongs to a continuous vertical section of masonry one unit in thickness) of masonry units are formed interconnecting with each other. Here one wythe contains brick or stone masonry and the other consists of hollow bricks. The horizontal joint reinforcement or steel ties are used to adjoin these wythes.
5. Post-tensioned Masonry Walls: Post-tensioned masonry walls are built up to fortify the masonry walls combating the forces that may cause tension in the wall similar to earthquake forces or wind forces.
These walls are built up from the foundation level and post-tensioning rods are affixed into the foundation. These rods are set up vertically connecting the wythes or in the middle of concrete masonry units.
Once the construction of masonry wall is finished and cured, these rods are tensioned and affixed over the steel place at the top of the wall.